Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism America and Other Countries

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism America and Other Countries Nowadays, our world consists of so many different societies, with their own preferences, interests, customs, and traditions. Culture of every society is unique indeed; it is a set of own values and goals, which characterize the society as a whole and separate institution. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism: America and Other Countries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The representative of each society lives with his/her own ethnocentric attitude, the belief that his/her culture is much more superior than any other. In order not to become self-absorbed, it is necessary to train the sense of cultural relativism in the society and make certain differentiations between the idea of cultural relativism and ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is a tendency, when a person uses the cultural norms of his/her own society in order to judge some other culture and its representatives. In addition, ethn ocentrism underlines the superciliousness of one culture among the others. Cultural relativism is another tendency, according to which personal beliefs and preferences are relative to another culture. Cultural relativism shows that there are not right and wrong standards with the help of which cultures may be compared. Taking into account such simple and comprehensible definitions, it is possible to say that the ideas of cultural relativism are rather opposite to the ideas of ethnocentrism (Ned-Seelye and Seelye-James, 1995, p 70). Without any doubts, ethnocentrism affects considerably the international affairs. Lots of people truly believe that America is one of the countries with too high idea of ethnocentrism. Of course, American ethnocentrism is known to many countries: some countries admire America’s power and abilities, however, some other countries cannot still understand what makes this country so powerful and dislike it a bit. â€Å"The image of the ugly American pr evalent in the 1960s has become increasingly rare. Although an occasional traveler still behaves as if the world owes him or her tribute as an American.† (Stewart Benneth, 1991, p 161) It is quite possible that Americans can do certain things better than the other countries. The Americans believe that they are able to do everything better: make films, create songs, dance, communicate, carry wars, etc. Advertising Looking for essay on cultural studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Of course, it is cool than the country is so sure about personal abilities and effects on other countries. However, it is necessary to remember about such a simple thing as cultural relativism in order to learn something new with the help of other countries and develop more and more. Let’s compare America with some other countries in a certain sphere of life, cuisine, for example. Americans can hardly boast with their own c uisine. In Italia, it is tasty macaroni and pizza, in France, it is croissants and brains of numerous animals, and, in Japan, it is rice and sushi. Of course, American McDonalds is something really amazing and attractive, however, it is not a kind of cuisine, but only a type of establishment, where fast food is presented. Another sphere that may be compared is dancing. Not every American can easily dance waltz or tango without any practice. For Austrians or Argentine, it will be rather easier, because these dances are in their blood. They just born to do unbelievable things during these dances and attract viewers’ attention. â€Å"Cultural relativism is a way of viewing the world in terms of the relevant culture, that is, in terms of the culture in which one finds oneself.† (Grulan Mayers, 1988 p 24) This is why America should take into account the ideas of cultural relativism and be ready to respect the other countries, at least in order to learn more, enlarge its ow n level of knowledge, and be open to other countries. With time, such intentions will probably help to amaze the world and even conquer it. Reference List Grulan, S. A. Mayers, M. K. (1988). Cultural Anthropology: A Christian Perspective. Zondervan. Ned-Seelye, H. Seelye-James, A. (1995). Culture Clash: Managing in a Multicultural World. McGraw-Hill Professional. Stewart, E. C. Benneth, M. J. (1991). American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Intercultural Press.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism: America and Other Countries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Monday, February 24, 2020

Green IT support in resolving environmental issues Research Paper

Green IT support in resolving environmental issues - Research Paper Example The adoption of Green approach to IT encompasses a broad range of activities that all possess the same objective: efficiency. Going Green has in recent years gained significance in recent years for diverse reasons, including revival in attention to environmental concerns and the confirmed cost savings that accompany green initiatives. This paper highlights the significance of Green IT in addressing the close connection between the environmental, economic, and social concerns, especially in reconciling the planet’s environmental needs with development needs. The paper concludes that, despite the rebound effects cited to downplay the effects of Green IT, Green IT is indeed a perfect means of resolving environmental issues that organizations face today. Green IT support in resolving environmental issues Introduction Environmental and energy conservation issues have recently gained topicality within the global business arena. This has largely been fuelled by the reality of increas ing energy costs combined with growing concerns over global warming climate crisis, plus other environmental issues. Green IT may refer to three critical areas of research; IT efficiency in terms of energy, management of the lifecycle of IT that is eco-compatible, and IT as a phenomenon that enables green governance (Barney 1996, p.50). The design, manufacture, deployment, function, utilization, and disposal of information technology bear significant ramifications for the environment. Up to 70% of CO2 emissions form IT comes from data centers (Hart 1997, p.67). This can be minimized by virtualization altering from â€Å"always on† to â€Å"always available,† and minimal consumption equipment. Green Approach and Computing Green IT activities are directed at â€Å"greenization,† or reduction of emissions through the use of IT technologies. IT managers can play a significant role in aiding their companies’ implement a green approach towards the agency's comp uting since they bear a rewarding impact on both environmental and fiscal concerns. There are two critical roles played by the IT solutions, which include saving energy form IT devices themselves (of IT) and saving energy by IT (by IT). Green IT is characterized into two categories, namely: enhancing energy efficiency of IT equipment (PC, Server, Storage), datacenter, parts (semiconductor) and electronics (TV, DVD, Refrigerator); and enhancing energy efficiency of the society by employment of IT solutions in industries (enhancing the efficiency of a production process, in business (such as use of web meeting), in households (online shopping), and transportation (eco-drive) (Sharma 2000, p.682). The implementation of Green IT has been critical in mitigating the rising energy costs and environmental damage. Green IT solutions address a wide range of environmental issues targeted at gaining sustainability. Addressing Environmental Concerns by Use of Green IT In the contemporary society , the challenges to the environment are concise. They include the urge for clean water and air; reasonable and consistent delivery of energy; reduced fossil fuels supply; climate change and its inferences for future generations. As a result, energy and climate related issues have become top issues for some corporation’s strategic agenda (Molla 2009, p.2). Green IT solutions can aid clients to reduce costs and systematically minimize energy, water, e-waste, and carbon

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Nursing managemnt Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nursing managemnt - Assignment Example 58). As a health professional, nurses often find themselves in an ethical dilemma when administering these palliative interventions; thus, authors of the article define and differentiate palliative sedation, voluntary euthanasia, and physician-assisted death. According to Parker, Paine & Parker (2011), palliative interventions differ only in terms of the actor’s identity as palliative sedation administer sedatives to relieve intractable pain and other distressing symptoms that often accompany later stages of a terminal illness, physician-assisted death prescribes barbiturate at a dose that enables patient to immediately terminate his/her own life when he/she chooses to ingest it, and voluntary euthanasia entails an affirmative act of one person to bring about the death of another (p. 59). Differences between the palliative interventions were clearly addressed but not the boundaries between law and bioethics which has caused ambivalence among health care providers, particularly nur ses. The law grounds palliative interventions to the patient’s right to autonomy but the ethical distinction between affirmative interventions and passive decisions opposes the general application. Meanwhile, bioethics justify palliative interventions in terms of double-effect but some state laws limit application because palliative interventions might be considered as homicide subject to criminal prosecution. In line with this, commentators proposed the development of clinical guidelines that are susceptible to universal population to enhance critical thinking and analysis of nurses in palliative measures and to create a framework for a focused decision process, and should include: education of medical and nursing staff, a provision that limit and incorporate safeguards, implementation of palliative after consultation of the attending physician to the interdisciplinary team, establishment of an internal mechanism, and adopting sedation

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

A Brave New World-perspective analysis Essay Example for Free

A Brave New World-perspective analysis Essay Imagine Brenda, a woman who will not under any circumstances trade her life in order to be conditioned, and then live as a Beta in the Brave New World (BNW), universe. If this is the case, then Brenda could not consistently accept Hedonism. This is due to the definition of Hedonism, the amount and intensity of bodily pleasure in Brave New World (BNW), and the amount and intensity of bodily pleasure here in real life. The definition of Hedonism leads one to maximize the amount of pleasure and minimize the amount of pain: The only thing intrinsically good in life is pleasure, and the only thing intrinsically bad in life is pain. Other things in life have extrinsic value they can lead to either pain or pleasure, but do not produce the sensations by themselves. However, Hedonists are only concerned with pleasure and pain, as these are the only intrinsic values. The distinctive factor that determines a better life from a worse one, is the amount of net pleasure in ones life. The net pleasure is determined by subtracting the amount of pain in ones life from the amount of pleasure. Notice that Hedonism only determines better lives from worse ones, not good from bad. To make the distinction between good and bad is an arbitrary decision and cannot be measured through a comparable medium such as net pleasure. Quantitative Hedonism states that quantity and intensity are the only criteria that determine just how good a certain pleasure is. If all pleasures differ only in quantity and duration, then the world in BNW is a dream for hedonists. Ones life in BNW is conditioned to be content and happy with ones, job, class in life, and the daily schedule of life. This schedule for ones life never changes and so delivers a maximum amount of pleasure due to being happy and content. High pleasure in BNW also comes from the open sexual relations between people. Basically, it is encouraged from childhood to have as many sex partners as possible, therefore maximizing the amount of pleasure from sex. The drug of choice in BNW is called Soma, and it delivers an amazing feeling without any hangover effect like alcohol. This drug is distributed daily at ones work to maximize ones amount of body pleasure. With all of these factors enhancing pleasure, it is also important to state that not much causes pain for ones life in BNW. There are no personal relationships to cause pain, jobs and education are  given specifically for people, and life is very much planned and repetitive. This repetition is what maximizes the amount and duration of pleasure in BNW lives. In real life, there does not exist anything like the above mentioned pleasures, in either quantity or duration. Therefore, when comparing the net pleasure of a life in BNW to a real earthly life, a hedonist finds that BNW lives have a higher net pleasure, and are thus far better. This is because they in BNW have much more intrinsically good pleasure, and much less disappointment and intrinsically bad events. So, if Brenda refuses to trade her life in order to be conditioned and live a BNW life, then she could not consistently accept hedonism because trading her life would give her a higher net pleasure, and by definition, a bett er life. Brenda still could accept hedonism if she accepted qualitative hedonism, based on Mills distinction between higher and lower pleasures. According to Mills, certain pleasures have a distinct higher value than other pleasures. This can be due to a mere preference for one pleasure over another, with the preferred pleasure having more intrinsic value because it is preferred, and thus more net pleasure. This can also be due preferring higher intellectual mind pleasures, as opposed to body pleasures like those in BNW. Mills distinction goes hand in hand with qualitative hedonism, which adds quality to the criteria distinguishing pleasure (intensity and duration). Higher quality pleasure are generally thought to be intellectual and creative pleasures as compared to bestial pleasures. Intimate relationships can also be thought of as being a higher quality pleasure. It is not substantial, however, that these higher pleasures merely exist for a hedonist, these higher pleasure must contribute to a higher net pleasure in life in order to be of value. Since there are absolutely no intellectual or intimate pleasures in BNW, the argument could be made that the intellectual and intimate pleasures in real life give higher net pleasure, and thus a better life. This theory also takes into account the pain that may be caused by relationships or by not attaining certain intellectual milestones. However, the argument can be made that the pleasure derived from these higher pleasures far surpasses any pain caused by them and guarantees a higher net pleasure than any life in BNW. If Brenda adopts this method of thinking, then she could both accept hedonism and still not  want to trade her life for a life in BNW. A qualitative hedonist, in order to consistently believe that actual life is better, must claim that the overall net pleasure one receives in real life is more than the net pleasure one receives in the BNW universe. One must claim that experiences in actual life, including but not limited to intellectual and intimate pleasures, produce more net pleasure than a life of bestial pleasures in BNW. This includes all of the pain and hardships experienced in real life, but not in BNW. The argument is that even with all of this pain, the net pleasure is still higher in real life. This is also what Brenda must adhere to if she wishes to not trade her real life for a conditioned BNW life.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Harry Potter And The Goblet of Firebook report Essay -- Essays Papers

Harry Potter And The Goblet of Firebook report Harry Potter The Time The Story Takes Place and Setting This story takes place at the present time. It takes place over the course of one year. It all starts at a small town outside London, then moves to an enchanted castle, located in a the middle of Britain. The castle is very large and would take hours to describe in detail. It has secret passages, doors that can move, and suits of armour that can get up and walk around. It has four large towers, and a dungeon in which Potions class is held for the pupils. The castle is actually a large school by the name of â€Å"Hogwart School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.† Hogwart is surrounded by a forbidden forest, which has werewolves and giant spiders in it. The students go to school at the castle, and it is set up like an English boarding school. The school also has a large lake beside it. It is fathoms deep, and has many magical creatures in it, from Hinkypunks, to Merpeople. Characters (1) Dominant The main character in this story is Harry Potter. He is a fourteen year old boy, and the extraordinary thing about him is that he is a magician. He is very famous, because when he was one year old he defeated the most powerful evil sorcerer of the time. The person he defeated was named Voldemort, and he died after killing Harry’s parents and turning on him. Voldemort had many supporters, and after he was weakened and almost lifeless most pretended to be under ...

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Difference between Language and Dialect

Language and Dialect : : : 2007? : : : : 2008/01/08 Abstract: This paper aims to probe into the study of language and dialect in the field of sociolinguistics. Part 1 is a general introduction to the issues being covered in the paper. Part 2 centers on the analysis of certain criteria that probably could be applied as to differentiate a language from a dialect. Part 3 and Part 4 introduce two distinguished kinds of dialects, namely, regional dialect and social dialect respectively through detailed examples.Part 5 investigates the different aspects of register which is closely related to the study of language and dialect. Part 6 is the conclusion. Key words: variety; regional dialect; social dialect; register Contents 1. Introduction 2. Criteria for differentiating a language from a dialect 2. 1 Variety and â€Å"mutual intelligibility† 2. 2 Other criteria (including Bell’s seven aspects in languages differentiation) 3. Regional dialect 3. 1 Definition and ch aracteristics of regional dialects 3. 2 Reasons for the appearance of regional dialects . Social dialects 4. 1 Social dialects in relation to age differences 4. 2 Social dialects in relation to sex differences 4. 3 Social dialects in relation to difference of social class membership 5. An introduction to register (field, mode and tenor) 5. 1 The field of discourse 5. 2 The mode of discourse 5. 3 The tenor of discourse 6. Conclusion 1. Introduction In sociolinguistics, language is considered as an abstract notion that is embodied in the form of dialects. It’s not clear-cut to distinguish a language from a dialect of a language. Mutual intelligibility† seems to be an ideal criterion in terms of telling a language from a dialect of a language, however, we can certainly find some cases that counter-argue this principle. Hence some other criteria should be applied as supplements to distinguish between a language and a dialect, among which, Bell’s seven principles for discussing different languages are of great inspiration. The varieties of dialects are differentiated according to the places in which they are used, the different social factors that affect their uses, and functions and styles they have when accommodating different situations in language communication.Accordingly, sociolinguists label these dialects as regional, social, and functional dialect respectively. This paper will touch upon the discussion of the different varieties of language in relation to the users, social factors and environment. 2. Criteria for differentiating a language from a dialect 2 . 1 Variety and â€Å"mutual intelligibility† In order to further the discussion of the difference between a language and a dialect, let’s first of all center on an important term in the field of sociolinguistics—variety. Then what is the definition of a variety? R. A.Hudson, a famous linguist, defines a variety of language as a set of linguistic items with simila r social distribution (1980:24). According to this definition, we can call any of the following items â€Å"varieties of language†: English, French, Chinese, London English, or the language used by a particular person, etc. It will be seen from this list that the general notion â€Å"variety† includes examples of what would normally be called languages, dialects and registers (a term meaning roughly â€Å"style†). Now we know that both â€Å"a language† and â€Å"a dialect of a language† are kind of variety.Then why do we call some varieties different languages and others different dialects of the same language? Many sociolinguists agree that a dialect is one of most problematic terms to give a general definition to. Some proposed that language exists in the form of dialect. What, then, is a dialect? What are the criteria for distinguishing between a language and a dialect of a language? Linguists start with the assumption that all human beings spe ak their own idiolects. Similar idiolects make up a particular dialect, and similar dialects make up a particular language.This statement in some sense presupposes that all the idiolects of a dialect and all the dialects of a language are mutually intelligible (Wang,1992:11). However, we can easily find cases to counter-argue this thesis if the principle of mutual intelligible serve as the only criterion for differentiating a language from a dialect. Take for example, the Scandinavian languages (including Norwegian, Swedish and Danish). Speakers of these three languages can, with little effort, understand and communicate with one another. These languages are mutually intelligible.According to the principle of â€Å"mutual intelligibility†, they are different dialects. But the fact is that they are usually assumed to be different languages. If we turn our attention to China, we will find that speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin will tell you that they speak the same language. P eople speaking Cantonese and people speaking Mandarin are not mutually intelligible at all, yet they almost certainly insist that they speak different dialects of the same language—Chinese, not different languages, for to the Chinese a shared writing system and a powerful social and cultural tradition form essential parts of our definition of language.So for these and other reasons, then, we cannot use the test of â€Å"mutual intelligibility† to differentiate between dialect and language. The fact is that there is no very clear distinction between the terms dialect and language. These two concepts are, as a matter of fact, ambiguous. The above two cases mentioned tell us that different languages are sometimes mutually intelligible and that dialects of the same language are sometimes not mutually intelligible at all. 2. 2 Other criteria (including Bell’s seven aspects in language differentiation) So apart from â€Å"mutual intelligibility†, we also need o ther supplementary criteria.Some sociolinguists have some accounts of differentiating a language from a dialect. One of them is based on the existence of a standard language or of a written form shared by a set of speakers. If two or more groups who differ in speech but regard the same form of speech as a standard, or if they share the common written form, they tend to be regarded as speaking different dialects rather than different languages, whatever degree of mutual intelligibility, like different dialects across China.On the contrary, the Scandinavian languages like Norwegian, Swedish and Danish are considered different languages because they have distinct, codified, standardized forms, with their own grammar books and literatures, which correspond to three separate nation states. Another account is made in terms of size and prestige. That means a language is larger than a dialect, so that a language can contain more dialects. For example, the Chinese language has seven dialects : Northern, Wu, Xiang, Gan, Min, Yue, and Kejia dialects.In addition, they also think that the term language implies social prestige, for it is written as well as spoken, but dialectal varieties are generally not used in formal writing, thus is not comparable with more socially valuable language. A famous linguist Bell (1976:147-57) has listed seven criteria that may be useful in discussing different kinds of languages. According to Bell, these criteria, namely, standardization, vitality, historicity, autonomy, reduction, mixture and de facto norms, may be used to distinguish certain languages from others. ) Standardization refers to the process by which a language has been codified in some way. That process usually involves the development of such things as grammars, dictionaries and possibly a literature, etc. Once a language is standardized it becomes possible to teach it in a deliberate manner. According to these criteria, both English and French are quite obviously standardized , Italian somewhat less so, and the variety known as Black English not at all. 2) Vitality, the second of Bell’s seven criteria, refers to the existence of a living community of speakers.This criterion can be especially used to distinguish languages that are â€Å"alive† from those that are â€Å"dead†. For example, Latin is dead in the sense that no one speaks it as native language; it exists only in a written form frozen in time, pronounced rather than spoken, and studied rather than used. Yet we should note that a language can remain a considerable force even after it is dead, that is, even after it is no longer spoken as anyone’s first language and exists almost exclusively in one or more written forms, knowledge of which is acquired only through formal education.Classical Greek and Latin still have considerable prestige in the Western world, and speakers of many modern languages continue to draw on them in a variety of ways. 3) Historicity refers to the fact that a particular group of people finds a sense of identity through using a particular language: it belongs to them. Social, political, religious, or ethnic ties may also be important for the group, but the bond provided by a common language may prove to be the strongest tie of all. Historicity can be long-standing.For example, the speakers of Chinese, the different varieties of colloquial Chinese make much of a common linguistic ancestry. 4) Autonomy is an interesting concept because it is really one of feeling. A language must be felt by its speakers to be different from other languages. However, this is a very subjective criterion. For example, some speakers of Black English maintain that their language is not a variety of English, but is a separate language in its own right. In contrast, speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin are not autonomous languages but are just two dialects of Chinese. ) Reduction refers to the fact that a particular variety may be regarded as a sub-v ariety rather than as an independent entity. Sometimes the reduction is in the kinds of opportunities afforded to users of the variety. For example, there may be a reduction of resources, that is, the variety may lack a writing system, etc. 6) Mixture refers to feelings speakers have about the â€Å"purity† of the variety they speak. This criterion appears to be more important to speakers of some languages than of others, e. g. more important to speakers of French and German than to speakers of English. ) De facto norms refers to the feeling that many speakers have that there are both â€Å"good† speakers and â€Å"poor† speakers, and that the good speakers represent the norms of proper usage. If we apply the above criteria to the different variation and change in the world, we will see that not every variety we may want to call a language has the same status as every other variety. English is a language, but so are Latin, Ukrainian and Chinese. Each satisfies a different sub-set of criteria from the above list. Although there are mportant differences among them, we would be loath to deny that any one of them is a language. They are all equals as languages, but that does not necessarily mean that all languages are equal. 3. Regional dialects 3. 1 Definition and characteristics of regional dialects As we travel throughout a wide geographical area in which a language is spoken, and particularly if that language has been spoken in that area for many hundreds of years, we are almost certain to notice differences in pronunciation, in the choices and forms of words, and in syntax.Such distinctive varieties are usually called regional dialects of the language. Regional dialect is named in accordance with their geographical distributions, so that Chinese Northern dialect is associated with the northern areas of China; Yue dialect is the main speech variety in Guangdong Province; and Xiang dialect is chiefly spoken by the inhabitants living in Huna n, etc. Regional dialects seem to be based on the different geographical locations in which each is the main means of daily communication.In regional dialects, vocabulary and syntax may also vary from one another, sometimes causing mutual unintelligibility. For example, Chinese speakers call the word â€Å"corn† differently in different regions, in Northeast China, people say â€Å" †; in Sichuan, it’s called â€Å" †; in Fujian, people say â€Å" †; and in South China’s Guangdong Province, people call it â€Å" †. The use of varied syntactic patterns in regional dialects is confusing as well, let’s study the following examples: In Cantonese In Mandarin , , From the above differences, we can observe that in Mandarin, adverb precedes verb or adjective, while in Cantonese, some adverbs are behind verb or adjective. 3. 2 Reasons for the appearance of regional dialects So what’re the reasons for the appearance of regio nal dialects? Firstly, Geographical barriers like mountain ranges, big rivers or other natural factors usually cause great transportation problems for people living in an out-of-way place. This is especially true of areas where economy is very backward.As a result, regional dialects appear when language with its own characteristics develops. Geographical isolation is one of the important factors for language variations within a country as well as across continents. Secondly, sociolinguistics also regards regional dialects as the result of historical changes in society. For example, many centuries ago, British settlers brought their native language—English to North America. After a few centuries, English in the two continents has developed into different regional dialects with their own characteristics in pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, etc.The same explanation can also be applicable to the case of Australian English, Indian English, Canadian English. Historical events li ke immigration and colonization have spread English into every corner of the world and split it into many different regional dialects. 4. Social dialects We know that human being are living in stratified social communities, and the way we use language reflects our differences in age, social status, social class, sex and profession, etc. All these become very crucial factors in determining in the relationship between different speech features and speakers’ social background (Wardhaugh, 1986:46) 4. Social dialects in relation to age differences Talking about age differences, we know youth frequently use vernacular words or slang forms and deletion of past tense marker—ed in the sentence like â€Å"My Dad cook for me yesterday. The tendency to make particular use or deletion of certain linguistic features marks their group membership when they tend not to conform to the social norms. But when teenagers grow old enough to enter the work force they gradually use more stand ard forms as they’re required to do so.The variety of children’s language is characterized by simplicity and lack of variation in style; and the variety used by young people is most responsible to the changing society and marked with vitality and solidarity; while in old people’s speech, one can find many old-fashioned linguistic features that are no longer used by the younger generation. 4. 2 Social dialects in relation to sex differences Many sociolinguists have observed that there is evidence of gender differences in language use.And such gender-related differences can be categorized into two kinds, one is sex-exclusive speech forms used by women or men only; the other one is sex-preferential forms which both sexes use but with one sex showing greater preference for them than the other. For the first type we can find an example in Japanese language, there are men-only pronouns: â€Å"I† and â€Å"you† for casual speech which women cannot use. For the case of second type, it seems that women’s speech style tends to be more polite, uncertain, and indirect.For example, female speakers are more likely to use some words like lovely, sweet, adorable, please, it’s very kind of you, etc. Women usually out-perform men in their choice of correct or standard speech form; while men tend to use a more non-standard vernacular style. Women used to be discriminated and regarded as inferior to men, whereas men had been more prestigious, authoritative and dominant in social affaires. However, with the increasing consciousness of the inequality imposed upon women, some feminists advocate to use neutral terms.As a result, now more and more English-speaking people insist on using words like chairperson, police officer, salesclerk and so on instead of the old and sex-based terms like chairman, policeman and saleman. 4. 3 Social dialects in relation to differences of social class membership The term social class implies different groups of people who can be differentiated in terms of social prestige, wealth, and education, and language users’ social relationship with other speakers is revealed in the ways they use the language.There are some criteria for social-class identification, like educational background, professional training, and occupation. The linguistic differences that indicate the social membership of different speakers are also manifest in vocabulary and grammar parts of the language they speak. For example, non-upper-class speakers often use multiple negations like, a young black American may say, â€Å"We ain’t had no trouble about none of us pulling out no knife†. 5. An introduction to register M. A. K.Halliday (1978:33) generalized the social context of language use in terms of three factors: the filed, this includes both professional and non-professional, or technical and non-technical social activities; the mode, which refers to the vehicle and channel of communicati on; or the way language is organized to deliver information, for example, written or oral style of speech; and tenor, which refers to the relationship between the participants and the intention of the speaker in the exchange of message and meaning with other speakers. 5. The field of discourse Language varies not only among people with different socio-economic status, but also among those with different trade and profession. A field or trade usually has its own terms of expression: a doctor learns to â€Å"talk doctor†, a lawyer learns to â€Å"talk lawyer†, and a priest learns to â€Å"talk priest†. This kind of professional or technical speech or writing is commonly referred to as jargon, it usually occurs among people sharing mutual interests or in-group knowledge which is usually inaccessible to a non-specialist.The jargon is used when the language user wants to convey the information of his special field with exactness and economy to his co-workers. Now wit h the rapid development and application of modern science and technology, some jargon vocabulary has gradually been introduced into general language and used by people in their everyday life, such as penicillin, fax, network, clone, etc. 5. 2 The mode of discourse Language is either spoken or written. With different channels of transmission, either by sound or by written symbols, the spoken and written styles of language manifest distinctive features respectively.Colloquial style, also called vernacular style, is used in the home, with close friends, between people from the same ethnic group for everyday communication. When people have a face-to-face conversation, their mutual interest or concern in certain topics, and their common background knowledge usually help reduce the load of task in their exchanging information with other participants; in addition, the participants can make use of their pronunciation, intonation, pitch, body gesture etc to convey their ideas. As a result, t he colloquial style of language can be succinct and concise without causing misunderstanding.In addition, there is a universal application of hesitation fillers such as er, mm, um, or well, you know, sort of, I mean etc. in the colloquial style of language users to help the speaker gain more time to think about what he says or to void the interruption of the flow of speech. Written style is another kind of mode of discourse. Compared with colloquial style, it is typical of formality. And written style can be further divided into styles of science, art, politics and business respectively. Each of them has developed its own features in the special register of language use.The mode of discourse, to an extent, more or less decides what kind of message, tone, and cohesive device must be chosen for the communication. It interacts with the field of discourse as well as the relationship between the speaker and the addressee to provide a background or context in which a particular style of l anguage can be most appropriately used. 5. 3 The tenor of discourse Speakers usually talk differently to people who have a different background and relationship to them, which is an important factor in determining the appropriate style of speaking in communication.For example, when you telling your friend that you like his new coat, you may say, â€Å"Hey, cool coat, I like it! † When telling the same thing to your boss, probably, you may say, â€Å"You look smart in your new coat today† Actually this is a matter of choosing your variety or code. And this choice of the right style in talking is based on the social distance between speakers. The better you know someone or the more familiar with him or her you are, the more casual and relaxed style you use; otherwise you may use a more formal utterance in conveying your ideas.Some typical examples about the tenor of discourse are motherese, teacher talk and foreign talk. Motherese refers to when a mother talks to her lit tle child, it is sensible of her not to talk in the same way as she does to an adult. Usually they will make use of some adjustments including special pitch, intonation, dictions, etc which is more acceptable for children. The use of motherese shows that the age of the addressee may affect the speaker’s style. The type of language style teachers use in language classrooms is called teacher talk.For example, teachers may use simpler utterance with low-level students; they use a more standard pronunciation and a more formal intonation. In addition, teachers usually will have a special favor in direction tutorial questions such as â€Å"Is the cup on the table? † and confirmation checks such as â€Å"Understand†? The teacher-student relationship largely determines the use of teacher-talk style to make sure the smooth process of formal proceedings in classrooms. Foreign talk is similar to teacher talk as well as motherese in that all use high frequency vocabulary, a nd all adopt shorter sentences with simple grammar.Yet the foreign talk is likely to be influenced by more variables such as the topic of conversation, the age of the participants, and the language proficiency of the learners. Hence foreign talk is comparatively more dynamic than the other two in various situations. The choice of appropriate form is influenced by the personal relationship between the participants: the higher degree of familiarity between them, the lower formality in language style they use; on the contrary, the lower degree of familiarity, the higher formality in style. . Conclusion To sum up, languages and dialects are a crucial part in the area of sociolinguistics, which is mainly concerned about the relation between linguistics and society. And the terms language and dialect are kind of ambiguous, thus it’s hard to draw a definite line between the two. Instead of making an absolute conclusion, it’s wiser and more recommendable to analyze the issues in question from a more objective point of view. And the paper adheres to this basic principle from the beginning till the end.Finally because the society is changing form time to time, so is the language, it’s better to leave space for the further discussion and exploration relating to the above topics being covered in this paper. References: 1. Bell, R. T. Sociolinguistics: Goals, Approaches and Problem. London: Batsford, 1976. 2. Coulmas, Florian. The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Beijing: Foreign Language and Teaching Press, 2001. 3. Halliday, M. A. Language as Social Semiotic. London: Arnold, 1978. 4. Hudson, R. A.Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980. 5. Wang Dechun. Yuyanxue Gailun (An introduction to linguistics) Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Teaching Press, 1997. 6. Wang Dexing. Shehuiyuyanxue Daolun (An introduction to sociolinguistics). Beijing: Beijing Foreign Languages Institute Press, 1992. 7. Wardhaugh, Ronald. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford : Basil Blackwell, 1986. 8. Zhu Wanjin. Shehuiyuyanxue Gailun (Sociolinguistics: an introduction). Changsha: Hunan Education Press, 1992.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

How to Structure News Stories With the Inverted Pyramid

There are a few basic rules for writing and structuring any news story. If you’re accustomed to other types of writing – such as fiction – these rules may seem odd at first. But the format is easy to pick up, and there are very practical reasons why reporters have followed this format for decades. Inverted Pyramid in News The inverted pyramid is the model for news writing. It simply means that the heaviest or most important information should be at the top – the beginning – of your story, and the least important information should go at the bottom. And as you move from top to bottom, the information presented should gradually become less important. In the age of internet news, many online news outlets have tweaked this format to align with search engines. But the basic premise remains the same: Get the most important information at the top of the news story. How to Write with the Inverted Pyramid Let’s say you’re writing a story about a fire in which two people are killed and their house is destroyed. In your reporting, you’ve gathered a lot of details including the victims’ names, the address of their home, what time the blaze broke out, and possibly what officials believe may have caused the fire. Obviously, the most important information is the fact that two people died in the fire. That’s what you want at the top of your story. Other details – the names of the deceased, the address of their home, when the fire occurred – should certainly be included. But they can be placed lower down in the story, not at the very top. And the least important information - things like what the weather was like at the time, or the color of the home - should be at the very bottom of the story (if included at all). Story Follows The Lede The other important aspect of structuring a news article is making sure the story follows logically from the lede (this is a deliberate misspelling of lead, which prevented confusion among typesetters in the early days of newspapers). So if the lede of your story focuses on the fact that two people were killed in the house fire, the paragraphs that immediately follow the lede should elaborate on that fact. You wouldnt want the second or third paragraph of the story to discuss the weather at the time of the fire, for example. Details such as the peoples names, their ages and how long they had lived in the home would all be important to include immediately following the lede sentence. History of the Inverted Pyramid The inverted pyramid format turns traditional storytelling on its head. In a short story or novel, the most important moment – the climax - typically comes about two-thirds of the way through, closer to the end. But in news writing, the most important moment is right at the start of the lede. The inverted pyramid format was developed during the Civil War. Newspaper correspondents covering that war’s great battles relied on telegraph machines to transmit their stories back to their newspapers’ offices. But often saboteurs would cut the telegraph lines, so reporters learned to transmit the most important information – General Lee defeated at Gettysburg, for instance – at the very start of the transmission to make sure it got through successfully. The use of the inverted pyramid also grew in popularity because as the news cycle grew shorter with the advent of television and online news, readers attention spans grew shorter as well. Now, theres no guarantee readers will continue to the end of a story, so getting the most important information at the top of the story is more important than ever.